文章

雅思写作资料

雅思写作资料下载:雅思大作文框架、逻辑详解

发布时间:2019-05-15 14:29:31文章来源: 带路喵点击:160

  大作文在雅思作文分数中占大部分,因此考生应该花更大的功夫在大作文上,以下为大作文立场确定、文体段结构以及论据以及逻辑递进。请雅思考生们在备考期间自己研读。

  文章的立场和结构

  作为文章核心目标的立场

  对于本质为议论文的大作文而言(报告文除外),文章最核心的目标(objective)就是对题目中涉及的论点(both views/agree disagree)做出立场判断以及对涉及的话题或事物进行优缺点评判(advantage/disadvantage)。因此这三类题型实际上写法没有任何区别,可以统一归类为 argumentation。 通过两个文体段的论述来有力表达自己的立场,是大作文的最终目标和灵魂。 报告文(report)则不涉及对于观点的辨析和论述,仅仅是单纯回答题目里面的两个问题- 一般来说是原因分析和提出解决方法-因此不涉及跟文章立场有关的逻辑关系,属于所有题 型里面相对最容易的。综合文出现的频率并不高,这类题型是议论文与报告文的结合,在写法上也是两者的结合, 总的来说难度也不高。因此只要弄懂了议论文怎么写,雅思大作文也就不足为虑了。

  Discuss both views 和 A/D 题型的区别与联系 前者在题目中会给出两类存在本质差异和矛盾的观点,A/D 则只要求对题目里唯一的观点进 行评判,而优缺点题型需要考生对题目中涉及的事物进行优缺点的评判。 三种题型看似不同,实际上考察的都是同一种能力:对于事物进行辩证的,批判性思考的能 力,也就是说考官希望看到考生在作文里面能够从正反两面来讨论某一观点或事物。

  例子:试分析以下三个题目的异同


  1. Nowadays computers and the Internet are important in children’s study. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  2. Some people think computers and the Internet are important in children’s study, but others think students can learn more effectively in schools and with teachers. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  3. Computers and the Internet are commonly adopted in the modern education practices. Do you think the the advantages overweight the disadvantages?

  练习

  Many customs and traditional ways of behave are no longer relevant to the modern life and not worth keeping. Do you agree or disagree?


  议论文的三种立场绝对中立(balanced talk): 对于两个观点没有任何偏向,对于 A/D 的一个观点既同意又不同 意,对于优缺点类认为优缺点差不多。这种写法的好处是论点比较容易构思,同时也实现了 正反讨论。但是绝对中立的文章缺乏更有深度的逻辑关系,往往不容易拿到高分,所以需要拿到 6.5 及以上的考生不要依赖于这种写法。

  例子 :

  Some people prefer to stay in the same type of work all the life, and others prefer to change their jobs from time to time. Discuss both sides and state your own opinion.

  To hold on to the work or to change it to another one is a choice of decision we might encounter once or twice in our lives. For some people this could be a positive thing, while for others it could be a disaster. However, the final aim for every job-hopper is to find an ideal job on which they can depend for their livelihood and from which they can draw satisfaction.

  Working in the same type of work for one’s career life-span has its positive underpinnings. A stable job with a steady income offers one a sense of security, especially in today’s highly competitive society, as well as the feeling of togetherness that comes from working with the same colleagues for many years. However, doing the same work in the same company with the same people in the same environment may well breed a kind of lethargy, a lack of motivation or imagination.

  Regular change of jobs enables employees to obtain diverse experience. The new working environment could turn out to be a great opportunity to show one’s talent and abilities and to gain confidence in oneself. However, job hoppers’ integrity and loyalty may be questioned. An employee who shifts his job too rapidly may not be promoted because of the employer may think he is not reliable and cannot be a team member.

  Job-hopping is a human instinct to see changes, a yearning to work with different people and a desire for different job duties. However, recruiters appreciate employees who devote their effort and heart to the job, as this is for the good of achieving a win-win benefit for both the company and the employee.

  文段一:稳定工作的优缺点(既好又坏);

  文段二:常换工作的优缺点(既好又坏); 没有明确的偏向性,没有清晰的立场。只是简单呈现出事物的优缺点。

  一边倒:对于 both views,完全支持其中一种观点,批判另一种观点。对于 A/D 类题型则是 完全支持或反对题目的观点。这种写法的好处在于能够通过更详细的论点以及复杂的逻辑论 证来获得比较高的分数。缺点在于写作难度比较高,观点不不容易想且比较有可能出现很多 逻辑漏洞,不推荐高分段以外的学生尝试。

  例子

  The Government should control the amount of violence in films or on television in order to decrease the level of violent crimes in society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  It is argued that the amount concerning violent contents in films or on television calls for restrictions, thus the social violent criminality level can be lowered accordingly. I, however, tend to be wholeheartedly against such opinion.

  Some could put forward that curbing the amount of violence throughout mass media including film and television is likely to reduce the deliberated and blind imitations of audiences,
particularly those youngsters, thereby decreasing violent crimes in society. (这句话不是很必要) Such argument, nevertheless, is groundless Fundamentally, the influences causing violence dissemination in society are not determined by the amount of violent plots or storylines(of what) merely, but decided by a combination of factors, such as personal values or capability to distinguish right from wrong. Therefore, focusing solely on the amount or degree can be largely fruitless or even in vain. For example, under some circumstances, even a few shots of murdering occasions can encourage minors to follow, just out of their curiosity. Conversely, as for those with clear legal awareness and self-discipline, long-time exposures to violent movies or television programmes can make no difference.

  More significantly, social crime level and rates can also be attributed to diverse reasons rather than a single cause. In other words, high employment, widening wealth gap and growing domestic violence should all be considered as contributing to such societal concern. For instance, barely will it be potent to just restrict the amount of violent shooting in Hollywood blockbusters instead of regulating the gun possessions and drug dealing in the United States for social security.

  In conclusion, it can be firmly reckoned that the government’s intention to decrease violent criminal level and rates in society through censoring violence in films and on television could be neither reasonable nor productive. Instead, comprehensive measures including promoting public law-related education and passing legislations to fight social violence are more urged.

  本文只有支持面,没有对立面

  难度适中的推荐写法:带有偏向性的正反讨论 这种写法难度介于前面两者之间,既指出了两类观点或者对立面与支持面各自的优点,但是 又通过优点之间的优劣对比,体现出了立场的偏向性。适用的文章结构:起承转合

  起:开头段,既话题引入和立场阐述;

  承:承认对立面的合理性 转:指出对立面存在的缺陷,以及支持面的优越性或不可替代性

  Many customs and traditional ways of behave are no longer relevant to the modern life and not worth keeping. Do you agree or disagree?

  Nowadays, an increasing number of people believes that the old fashioned customs and traditional ways of behaving should be abandoned because of their poor connection with the life in modern society, which is an opinion I totally disagree with.

  To begin with, for those who are in the camp of not keeping old customs, one possible argument is that these traditional behaviors such as ceremonies and celebrations take considerable amount of both money and time. It could be a waste of public fund if such things have no direct and practical profit to the society. Furthermore, the fast pace of living in the modern society makes it impossible for conventional ceremonies to attract people to join in.

  Nevertheless, what has been neglected is that the potential value of these customs and traditional behaviors which could not be measured simply by money and time, as it is a nation’s tradition that make one culture distinguished from another. Moreover, the compatibility of the traditions could also be underestimated. Instead, cultural elements that contributes to positive personalities such as perseverance and honesty still play an important role in modern ways of life, as such personalities are never contradictory to the contemporary social value and therefore still supported by the mass public despite of the pace of life.

  In conclusion, despite some demerits of keeping old customs, they are crucial for the lasting of a nation’s culture, as a result, more significance should be attached to them.

  文体段的结构

  文体段的目的

  文体段是大作文的核心段落,其主要作用是通过每段大约 100 字的论述来阐明某个观点,并 且通过两个观点之间的对比来表明立场。在 discuss both views 的题型里,两个观点分别对应 于题目里面的两个观点,在 agree/disagree 题型里对应题目观点的正反面,在 advantage/disadvantage 里面对应题目里所涉及事物的优缺点。一般而言,对于报告文来说 两个文体段的核心观点对应的是问题里面的原因或者解决方法。

  文体段的结构

  中心句(main idea):general statement,对于问题某一面的一种笼统的表态,比如某种事物 总体来说好还是不好。比如:Tourism could indeed contribute to the preservation of historical attractions.

  Changing job frequently will give rise to a worse career prospect.
论点(bullet points):对于中心句的拓展和细化,相比而言是对问题某一面的某个具体的角 度提出观点。一个文体段出现两个论点基本上就足够了,但是论点一定要具体,不能像中心 句一样笼统。论点和中心句之间是拓展和递进的关系。比如:It is the prosperity of tourism that provides the historical sites with a powerful financial support.

  Changing job frequently will be regarded as a sign of instability, making it more difficult for one to be employed.

  论据(supporting idea): 每个论点的成立都需要一定的论据去支持,否则就不具有任何的说 服力。论据的类型一般可以分为纯逻辑(reasoning)以及事例(examples),前者可以分为 因果论证,条件论证,目的论证,进一步解释说明,而后者叫做举例论证。不同论证方式的 使用适合不同的论点类型,各自也可以搭配不同的句式。

  比如: apart from paying for the admission fees, tourist are also likely to spend money on souvenirs, foods and hotels within the tourist sites....

  中心句的写法

  中心句常常与立场相关,因此两个文体段具体的写法不太一样。承认对立面合理性的文体段 最好使用让步的写法,而支持面的段落则会使用转折。

  练习 从以下的句子中挑选出合适的中心句:

  Generally, watching TV is detrimental to the development of children. 


  It is undeniable that mass media imposes a significant impact on modern citizens. 


  It is suggested that tourism is threatening the preservation of historical attractions. 


  First, teachers can encourage the students by provoking their talents and interests. 


  However, negative responses to the flourish of global food industry are quite common. 


  In fact, animal rights should be concerned in several aspects. 


  论点的角色与构思角度

  文体段的论点(bullet point)是对于中心句(general statement)的阐释和细化,是整个段 落的重要组成部分。论点是由两个到三个单词构成的词伙,与文章的话题类型高度相关,也 是实实在在的干货,能够让考官直观感受到考生的词汇量,因此论点一定不能是笼统的表达。 具象化是对于论点的基本要求。对于一个 100 字的文体段来说,两个论点的体量就足够了。由于两个论点都是对于同一个中心句的拓展,因此二者之间是并列的关系,我们往往能够通过一些表并列的连接词来迅速找 出文章的论点。

  练习

  In some countries, it is possible for people to have a variety of food transported from all over the world. To what extent do you think its advantages outweigh its disadvantages?

  Globalization benefits the food industry in the way that customers are now accessible to a considerably larger range of food that is not domestically produced, enabling the cross-cultural communication in the form of exotic recipes and naturally a more luxuriant family menu. Yet this trend also imposes influences on the trading countries both economically and politically. In my own view, the prosperity of food industry will eventually boost the society in every aspect.

  Undeniably, negative responses to the idea of transporting food from other countries are common. To be more specific, the inconsistent agricultural policies among the trading parities could lead to a troublesome disagreement. For instance, the criteria of safety, distribution system and retailing conditions varies largely depending on the areas concerned, which would need a enormous number of negotiations. Moreover, the domestic market may respond negatively to the importation of foreign foods which could be so competitive that they critically threaten the business opportunities of the local manufactures, giving rise to an increasing rate of unemployment over a period of time.

  However, the conflicts in the agricultural legal process can in fact be dealt with through joint efforts at the global scale. Provided that ideas and opinions are thoroughly shared and discussed in the international conferences and summits, agreements on matters such as food safety criteria can be reached and a comprehensive trading system can thus be built. In addition, instead of sabotaging the domestic agricultural market, those imported products can provide the local sector with new opportunities, that is to say, the market structure that used to rely on the domestically produced foods will be reformed to allow more competitions, which forces the local manufacturers to improve their own qualities and change their business strategies.

  In conclusion, although there are still some issues related to the globalization of food industry such as the inconsistency of policies and domestic market concern, the overall advantages outweigh disadvantages as it will not only boost the global food market by reshaping the legal process but also make local markets more competitive and thus energetic.

  大作文的话题种类

  论点的构思可以说是雅思大作文里面最有难度的一个环节,因为涉及到的话题种类非常多, 考生往往会感觉论点素材准备起来工作量很大,同时限于生活经验也很难在考场上迅速找到 思路。而过往的雅思大作文话题总结起来,大致可以分为以下十类:1. 政府类;2. 科技类;3. 城市化;4. 文化和价值观;5. 生活方式;6. 工作类;7. 环境类;8. 媒体类;9. 全球化;10. 教育类;

  每一大类的话题之下都包含数种次话题,所以能够衍生出大量的话题。不过实际上每一大类 话题都有一些百搭类的词伙作为通用观点。也就是说,只要掌握了这些百搭观点的写法,在 考场上就只需要根据具体题目的不同稍作改动,即可用作文章论点,从而极大程度上节省构 思时间。

  科技类话题:机械化和机器人的影响

  Mechanisation 的相关词伙

  1. Improve productivity 提高生产力

  Improve efficiency 提高效率 


  Perform repetitive task 执行重复劳动 


  Replace human labor 取代人类劳动力 


  Reduce the workforce 减少劳动力 


  Mechanise tasks 机械化任务 


  Mechanised assembly lines 机械化装配线 


  Mechanised farming 机械化耕作 


  Automate the process 过程自动化 


  10. Computerize the service 服务电脑化 


  Lower the cost of production 降低生产成本 


  Argument 结尾段的写法

  结尾段的主要作用:重申立场,总结论点。例子Many customs and traditional ways of behave are no longer relevant to the modern life and not worth keeping. Do you agree or disagree?

  文段一论点:1. Financial cost; 2.compatibility


  文段二论点:1. Potential value; 2.cultural development

  论据以及逻辑递进

  文章流畅度(CC)的核心概念:逻辑递进大作文四大评分标准之一的 Coherence and cohesion 明确指出一篇 7 分的文章需要具备的三 个条件是 1.logically organizes information and there is a clear progression throughout; 2. Use a range of connective devices appropriately; 3.presents a clear central topic for each paragraph. 而 其中最核心的一个概念就是所谓的logical progression(逻辑递进)。逻辑递进在论点和论据 之间的体现是最能反映文章思路的清晰度的,因此,合理使用逻辑连接词将合适的论据与论 点结合起来是文体段成功的关键。

  论据的角色与分类

  在前面的课程里面我们已经对文体段的三大要素进行了基本介绍,也知道论据的主要作用是 对论据进行支持(support and justify)。而实际上论据对论点的支持方式可以分为五类论证 方式,因果论证,条件论证,进一步解释说明,举例论证,对比论证。其中前三种可以归类 于所谓的逻辑论证(reasoning),其本质是通过逻辑递进来使得某些具有争议或者模糊的论 点得以明晰和存在。而后面两种可以归类为事例论证(facts),其本质是通过一些日常事物 (common sense)来具象化论点里面的抽象概念。

  逻辑论证的正确打开方式

  要使用好逻辑论证,一个行之有效的训练方式叫做 ABC 写作法(原创:顾家北)。具体说来, 当我们要抛出一个论点的时候(论点往往是某段逻辑的结果),我们心中要包含三个点:A. 某事的原因B. 原因导致的一个结果C. 这个结果所引起的一个最终结果(也就是论点本身)

  例子

  Some people prefer to stay in the same type of work all the life, and others prefer to change their jobs from time to time. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  对立面论点 1:staying in the same type of work all the life guarantee a stronger job security.

  A.(原因)

  B.(原因导致的一个结果)

  C.(最终结果,论点)

  逻辑论证中常用的连接性成分和句式

  在论据的写作里,我们可以开始尝试使用一些复杂句来体现逻辑递进的关系。不过在此之前, 通过表递进的逻辑连接词来连接几个简单句,也能达到同样的效果。 在报告文中,表目的和解决的成分使用得也较为频繁

  例子

  对立面论点 1:staying in the same type of work all the life guarantee a stronger job security.

  A.(原因)

  B.(原因导致的一个结果)

  C.(最终结果,论点)

  Staying in the same type of work all the life guarantees a stronger job security, because challenges and relationships in such situation will mostly remain unchanged, and the current working skills are sufficient to deal with daily routines. As a result,one’s capability and loyalty to the company are less likely to be questioned.

  同样地,条件论证也可以应用到这个例子当中.


  Staying in the same type of work all the life guarantees a stronger job security. Provided that challenges and relationships in such situation remain unchanged and the current working skills are sufficient to deal with daily routines, one’s capability and loyalty to the company can hardly be questioned.

  进一步解释说明在本质上也是相同的

  Staying in the same type of work all the life guarantees a stronger job security. That is to say, one’s capability and loyalty to the company can hardly be questioned in such situation where challenges and relationships mostly remain unchanged, making it unnecessary for employees to refine their working skills.

雅思带路喵微信公众号免费资料领取
文章关键词: 雅思备考资料
免责声明:站内部分文章信息来源于网络以及网友投稿,本网站只负责对文章进行整理、排版、编辑,是出于传递更多雅思考试相关资料之目的,如本站文章和转稿涉及版权等问题,请作者在及时联系本站,我们会尽快处理。
标题:雅思写作资料下载:雅思大作文框架、逻辑详解
地址:http://www.dkielts.com/yszl/xzzl/88.html

雅思经验分享来自衢州市孟同学的评价:

我5.5最后逆袭上了7,真想给你们看看我是找的拿篇资料

雅思经验分享来自徐州市安同学的评价:

我觉得,这里是自学雅思最好的地方,天天学经验不说,还打鸡血

雅思经验分享来自铜陵市湛同学的评价:

看了雅思笔试和机考,我虽然没考过机考,但是还是决定去试试,希望机考真能有那么多优势

雅思经验分享来自松原市廉同学的评价:

在这里,我找到了自己的不足

雅思经验分享来自安庆市汪同学的评价:

机考经验真的帮了我,不错不错

雅思写作资料

推荐文章

更多>>

    • 雅思带路喵答库雅思站
    • 雅思带路喵雅思口语合意包

    热门文章

    更多>>

    最新动态

    更多>>

    雅思热搜

    雅思听力技巧 雅思备考经验 香港雅思考试 雅思写作 雅思阅读高分 雅思听力 国外考雅思 雅思听力提升方法 雅思口语 国外雅思考试 雅思听力考试 备考雅思口语 雅思口语满分 雅思写作高分技巧 快速备考雅思 香港考雅思 雅思考试 泰国考雅思 雅思考试经验 台湾考雅思 口语快速提分 雅思阅读考试 雅思快速提分 雅思经验 雅思写作高分经验贴 雅思听力高分 雅思高分技巧 泰国雅思考试 雅思口语7分 雅思口语备考

    雅思问答

    更多>>