发布时间:2019-04-26 11:03:24文章来源: 带路喵点击:194


  Test 3

  SECTION 1 Questions 1-10

  Questions 1 to 3

  Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.



  Questions 4-8

  Complete the table below.

  Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.





  Questions 9 and 10

  Choose TWO letters,A-E.

  Which TWO facilities in the district of Devon Close are open to the public at the moment?

  A museum

  B concert hall

  C cinema

  D sports centre

  E swimming pool

  SECTION 2 Questions 11-20

  Questions 11-16

  Complete the notes below.

  Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/ OR A NUMBER for each answer.


  Well known for: 11 ...................

  Complex consists of: concert rooms



  art galleries

  public library


  a 12...................

  Historical background: 1940 - area destroyed by bombs

  1960s-1970s - Centre was 13 .......... and built

  in 14 ................... - opened to public

  Managed by: the 15...................

  Open: 16 .......... days per year

  Questions 17-20

  Complete the table below.

  Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/ OR A NUMBER for each answer.



  SECTION 3 Questions 21-30

  Questions 21-26

  Choose the correct letter,A ,B or C.

  Latin American studies

  21 Paul decided to get work experience in South America because he wanted

  A to teach English there.

  B to improve his Spanish.

  C to learn about Latin American life.

  22 What project work did Paul originally intend to get involved in?

  A construction

  B agriculture

  C tourism

  23 Why did Paul change from one project to another?

  A His first job was not well organised.

  B He found doing the routine work very boring.

  C The work was too physically demanding.

  24 In the village community, he learnt how important it was to

  A respect family life.

  B develop trust.

  C use money wisely.

  25 What does Paul say about his project manager?

  A He let Paul do most of the work.

  B His plans were too ambitious.

  C He was very supportive of Paul.

  26 Paul was surprised to be given

  A a computer to use.

  B so little money to live on.

  C an extension to his contract.

  Questions 27-30

  What does Paul decide about each of the following modules?

  Choose the correct letter, A , B or C, next to questions 27-30.




  27 Gender Studies in Latin America ....................

  28 Second Language Acquisition ....................

  29 Indigenous Women's Live ....................

  30 Portuguese Language Studies ....................

  SECTION 4 Questions 31-40

  Questions 31-34

  Choose the correct letter,A ,B or C.

  Trying to repeat success

  31 Compared to introducing new business processes, attempts to copy existing processes are

  A more attractive.

  B more frequent.

  C more straightforward.

  32 Most research into the repetition of success in business has

  A been done outside the United States.

  B produced consistent findings.

  C related to only a few contexts.

  33 What does the speaker say about consulting experts?

  A Too few managers ever do it.

  B It can be useful in certain circumstances.

  C Experts are sometimes unwilling to give advice.

  34 An expert 's knowledge about a business system may be incomplete because

  A some details are difficult for workers to explain.

  B workers choose not to mention certain details.

  C details are sometimes altered by workers.

  Questions 35-40

  Complete the notes below.

  Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

  Setting Up systems based on an existing process

  Two mistakes

  Manager tries to:

  • improve on the original process

  • create an ideal 35 ....................... from the best parts of several processes

  Cause of problems

  • information was inaccurate

  • comparison between the business settings was invalid

  • disadvantages were overlooked ,e.g. effect of changes on 36 .......................


  • change 37 .......................

  • impose rigorous 38 .................

  • copy original very closely:

  一 physical features of the 39 .................

  一 the 40 ....................... of original employees

  Test 3

  Section 1

  WOMAN: Good morning, how can I help you?

  MAN: Hello, I’m interested in renting a house somewhere in the town.

  W:Right, could I have your name please?

  M: Yes, it’s Steven Godfrey.

  W:And tell me how many bedrooms you’re looking for?

  M: Well, we’d need four because I’m going to share the house with 3 friends.

  W:Ok, there are several of that size on our books, they mostly belong to families who are working abroad at the moment. What about the location?

  M: It would be nice to be central.

  W:That might be difficult as most houses in that size are in the suburbs. Still, there are a few. What’s your upper limit for the rent?

  M: We’d like something around 500 pounds a month, but we could go up to 600 if we have to, but we can’t go beyond that.

  W:Do you know how long you want to rent the house for? The minimum let is 6 months, as you probably realize.

  M: We’re at college here for 2 years and we don’t want to have to move during that time if we can avoid it.

  W:And how soon do you want to move in, all our lets start on the first of the month

  Well, as soon as possible really, so that means September 1st.

  W:Ok, let me have a look at what we’ve got.…We have photographs of all the houses on our books, so you can get an idea of what they’re like. There is this one in Oakington avenue at 550 pounds a month, combined living room and dinning room with a separate kitchen, it doesn’t have a garage, though you can park in the road

  M: We prefer to have one if possible.

  W:Have a look at this house in mid street, it’s got a very large living room and kitchen, bathroom, cloakroom.

  M: How much is it?

  W:That one is 580, it’s very well furnished and equipped, it also has plenty of space for parking and it’s available for a minimum of a year. Oh, and there is a big garden.

  M: I don’t think we could cope with that, to be honest. We’ll be too busy to look after it.

  W:Then there is this older house in Hamilton road, living room, kitchen-dinner and it has a study, 550 a month

  M: That looks rather nice, but whereabouts in Hamilton road

  W:Towards the west end

  M: Oh, that’ll be very noisy, I know the area.

  W:Yes, it’s pretty lively, some people like it though. Well, what about this house in Devon Close

  That looks lovely.

  W:There is a big demand for houses in that area, so prices tend to be quite high, but this one hasn’t been decorated for a few years which has kept the rent down a bit. It’s got a living room, dinning room and small kitchen and it’s 595 a month. I think it would suit you from what you’ve said.

  M: It sounds fine.


  M:Why is that part of town so popular

  W:Well, there is a big scheme to improve the district and it’ll soon have the best facilities for miles around.

  M:What sort of thing?

  W:There is a big sport center under construction, which would be very impressive when it’s finished. In fact, the swimming pool’s already opened ahead of schedule, and it’s attracting a lot of people.

  M:What about cinemas, are there any in the area

  W:The only one closed down last year and now it’s now in the process of being converted into a film museum, the local people are trying to get a cinema added to the scheme.

  M:I think I heard something about a plan to replace the existing concert hall with a larger one

  W:That’s due to start next year

  M:It sounds an interesting area to live in, could I go and see the house please

  Section 2

  Hello, welcome to focus on the arts. I’m your host Stave Green, and this your very own local radio program. Every Friday evening, we put the spotlights on different arts and culture facilities, and look at the shows and events that are on offer in the coming week. And today the focus is on the national art center.

  Now, if you don’t already know it yourself, I’m sure you’ve all heard of it. It’s famous throughout the world as one as the major venues of classical music.

  But did you know that it’s actually more than just a place to hear concerts. The center itself is a huge complex that caters for a great range of arts, under a single roof, it houses concert rooms, theaters, cinemas, art galleries and a wonderful public library as well as service facilities including 3 restaurants and a bookshop. So, at any one time, the choice of entertainment there is simply enormous.

  So, how did they manage to build such a big art complex right in the heart of the city? Well, the area was completely destroyed by bombs during the war in 1940, so the opportunity was taken to create a cultural center that would be, or they called, the city’s gift to the nation. Of course, it took a while for such a big project to get started. But it was planned in the 60s, built in the 70s and eventually opened to the public in 1983. Ever since then, it has proved to be a great success.

  It not privately owned like many art centers, but is still in public hands. It’s run by the city council. Both our national symphony orchestra and national theater company were involved in the planning of the project and then they are based there, giving regular performances every week. And as the center is open 363 days of the year, there are plenty of performances to choose from.

  So, to give you some ideas of what’s on and to help you choose from the many possibilities, we’ve made a selection of the star attractions.

  If you’re interested in classical music, then we recommend you go along to the national on either Monday or Tuesday evening at 7.30 for a spectacular production of the magic flute, probably the most popular of all Mozart’s operas. It’s in the garden hall and tickets start at only 8 pounds, but you’ll have to be early if you want to get them that cheap. And remember, it’s only on for those 2 evenings.

  For those more interested in the cinema, you might like to see the new Canadian film which is showing on Wednesday evening at 8 pm in cinema 2, and that’s called 3 lives. It’s had fantastic reviews and tickets cost just 4.50, which is a reduction on the usual price of 5.50, so it’s really good value especially for such a great movie.

  But you can see the center’s main attraction at the weekend, because on Saturday and Sunday, 11 am to 10 pm, they’re showing a wonderful exhibition that hasn’t been seen anywhere else in Europe yet. It’s a collection of Chinese art, called faces of china, that’s in gallery 1, and it has some really fascinating paintings and sculptures by leading artists from all over China, and the good news is that it’s completely free, so don’t miss it.

  So, why not go along to the national art center next week for one or all of these great events. And you can always pick up a program and check out all the other performances and exhibitions on offer, or coming soon, on almost everyday of the year.

  Next week, we’ll be looking at the new museum of science.

  Section 3

  I’ve been reading your personal statement Paul, first, let’s talk about your work experience in south America. What took you there, was it to gain more fluency in Spanish?

  Well, as I’m combining Spanish with Latin American studies, my main idea was to find out more about the way people lived there. My spoken Spanish is already pretty good in fact.

  So you weren’t too worried about language barriers.

  No, in fact I ended up teaching English there, although that wasn’t my original choice of work.

  I see, how did you find out about all this

  I found an agency that runs all kinds of voluntary projects in south America.

  What kind of work?

  Well, there were several possibilities.

  You mean construction, engineering work

  Yes, getting involved in building projects was an option. Then there was tourism taking tourists for walks around the volcanoes, which I actually chose to do. And then there was work with local farmers.

  But you didn’t continue with that project, why not?

  Because I never really knew whether I’d be needed or not. I’d thought it might be difficult physically, but I was certainly fit enough, now I wanted to do something that had more of a proper structure to it, I suppose, I get de-motivated otherwise.

  What do you think you learned from your experience, it must have been a great opportunity to examine community life.

  Yes, but it was difficult at first to be accepted by the locals, it was a very remote village and some of them were reluctant to speak to me, although they were always interested in my clothes and how much I’d had to pay for them

  Well, that’s understandable.

  Yes, but things soon improved. What struck me was that when people became more comfortable with me and less suspicious, we really connected with each other in a meaningful way.

  You made good friends

  Yes, with 2 of the families in particular.

  Good, what about management, did you have a project manager

  Yes, and he gave me lots of advice and guidance.

  And was he good at managing too

  That wasn’t his strong points. I think he’s often more interested in academic side of things than filing reports, he was a bit of a dreamer.

  And did you have a contract

  I had to stay for a minimum of 3 months. My parents were surprised when I asked to stay longer, 6 months in the end, I was so happy there

  And did any thing on the administration side of things surprise you, what was the food and lodging like?

  Simple, but there was plenty to eat and I only paid 7 dollars a day for that which was amazing really. And they gave me all the equipment I needed, even a laptop.

  You didn’t expect that then


  Oh, I’ll look forward to hearing more.

  But now let’s look at these modules. You’ll need to start thinking about which ones you’ll definitely want to study. The first one here is gender studies in Latin America. It looks at how gender analysis is reconfiguring civil society in Latin America. Women are increasingly occupying positions in government and in other elected leadership positions in Latin America, I think you’d find it interesting.

  If it was to do with people in the villages rather than those in the public sphere, I would.

  Ok, what about second language acquisition?

  Do you think I’d find that useful

  Well, you’ve had some practical experience in the field, I think I would be.

  I hadn’t thought about that. I’ll put that down as a definite then

  Ok, what about indigenous women’s lives? That sounds appropriate.

  I thought so too, but I looked at last’s exam questions and that changed my mind.

  Don’t judge the value of the course on that, maybe talk to some other students first and we can talk about it again later.


  Yes, and lastly, will you sign up for Portuguese lessons?

  My Spanish is good, so would I find that module easy

  Not necessarily, some people find that Spanish interferes with learning Portuguese, getting the accent right too. It’s quite different in a lot of ways.

  Well, I’d much sooner do something else then

  Alright, what we need to do

  Section 4

  Good morning everyone, in the last few lectures I’ve been dealing with business finance, but now, I’m going to move on to business systems. And in today’s lecture, I’m going to talk about what can go wrong when businesses try to copy there own best practices.

  Once a business has successfully introduced a new process, managing a branch bank, say, or selling a new product, the parent organization naturally wants to repeat that success and capture it if possible on a bigger scale. The goal then is to utilize existing knowledge and not to generate new knowledge. It’s a less glamorous activity than pure innovation. But it actually happens more often as a matter of fact. However, surprisingly, getting things right the second time is not necessarily any simpler than it was at the first time. Now, there is been a lot of research into how companies can repeat their previous successes and it certainly hasn’t been confined to the United States.

  It seems that most large industries are trying to repeat their own successes and manage the knowledge they’ve acquired. But even so, it has been shown that the overwhelming majority of attempts fail. A host of studies confirm this, covering a wide range of business settings, branch banks, retail stores, real estate agencies, factories, call centers, to name but a few.

  So why do so few managers get things right the second or third time. Let’s consider one reason for failure, placing too much trust in the people who are running the successful operation, the experts, shall we say. Managers who want to apply existing knowledge typically start off by going to an expert, such as the person who designed and is running a successful department store, and picking their brains. Now, this approach can be use if you want to gain a rough understanding of a particular system or understand smaller, isolated problems.

  The trouble is, even the expert doesn’t fully grasp the whole thing, because when it comes to complex systems, the individual components of the process are interwoven with one another. The expert never has complete access to the necessary information. And the situation is complicated even further by the fact that experts are usually not aware of their own ignorance, the ignorance can take various forms. For instance, a lot of details of the system are invisible to managers, some may be difficult to describe, learned on the job and well known by workers perhaps, but impossible to describe in a way that’s helpful. And there are some things that people know or do that they’re not even aware of.

  Now, let’s consider 2 types of mistake that can occur when a manager actually starts to set up a duplicate system to replicate a successful process. Firstly, perhaps he forgets that he was just trying to copy another process and starts trying to improve on it. Another mistake is trying to use the best parts of various different systems in the hope of creating the perfect combination. Unfortunately, attempts like these usually turn out to be misguided and lead to problems. Why? Well, for various reasons.

  Perhaps, there weren’t really any advantages after all because the information wasn’t accurate. Or perhaps the business settings weren’t really comparable. More typically, the advantages are real enough but there are also disadvantages that have been overlooked. For example, the modifications might compromise safety in some way.

  So what’s the solution. Well, I don’t intend to suggest that it’s easy to get things right the second time. It’s not. But the underlying problem has more to do with attitudes than the actual difficulty of the task. And there are ways of getting it right. These involve adjusting attitudes first of all, being more realistic and cautious really. Secondly they involve exerting strict controls on the organizational and operational systems. And this in turn means copying the original as closely as possible, not merely duplicating the physical characteristics of the factory, but also duplicating the skills that the original employees had. Reliance on a template like this offers the huge advantage of build-in consistency.

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