发布时间:2018-12-18 14:23:35文章来源: 带路喵点击:188
Test 2
Questions 1-10
Complete the form below.
Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
                         Accommodation Form - Student Information
Type of accommodation:    hall    of residence
Name : Anu 1          
Date of birth : 2          
Country of origin : India
Course of study : 3          
Number of years planned in hall : 4          
Preferred catering arrangement : half board
Special dietary requirements : no 5          (red)
Preferred room type : a single 6          
Interests : the 7          
Priorities in choice of hall : to be with other students who are 8         
                      to live outside the 9          
                      to have a 10          area for socialising
Contact phone number : 667549
Questions 11-13
Complete the table below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

                                                                 Parks and open spaces

Questions 14-16
Choose the correct letter,A,B or C.
Longfield Park
14  As part of Monday’s activity,visitors will
A  prepare food with herbs.
B  meet a well-known herbalist.
C  dye cloth with herbs.
15  For the activity on Wednesday.
A  only group bookings are accepted.
B  visitors should book in advance.
C  attendance is free.
16  For the activity on Saturday,visitors should
A  come in suitable clothing.
B  make sure they are able to stay for the whole day.
C  tell the rangers before the event what they wish to do.
Questions 17-20
Label the map below.
Write the correct letter,A-I,next to questions 17-20.

                                                                                            Hinchingbrooke Park

17  bird hide           
18  dog-walking area           
19  flower garden           
20  wooded area           
Questions 21-24
Choose the correct letter,A,B or C.
Self-Access Centre
21  Students want to keep the Self-Access Centre because
A  they enjoy the variety of equipment.
B  they like being able to work on their own.
C  it is an important part of their studies.
22  Some teachers would prefer to
A  close the Self-Access Centre.
B  move the Self-Access Centre elsewhere.
C  restrict access to the Self-Access Centre.
23  The students’ main concern about using the library would be
A  the size of the library.
B  difficulty in getting help.
C  the lack of materials.
24  The Director of Studies is concerned about
A  the cost of upgrading the centre.
B  the lack of space in the centre.
C  the difficulty in supervising the centre.
Questions 25-30
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Necessary improvements to the existing Self-Access Centre
Replace computers to create more space.
The level of the 25           materials,in particular,should be more clearly shown.
Update the 26           collection.
Buy some 27            and divide them up.
Use of the room
Speak to the teachers and organise a 28           for supervising the centre.
Install an 29           .
Restrict personal use of 30          on computers.

Questions 31-40
Complete the notes below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
                           Business Cultures
Power culture
Characteristics of organisation    -  small
                             -  31           power source
                             -  few rules and procedures
                           -  communication by 32          
Advantage:                  -  can act quickly
Disadvantage:                -  might not act 33          
Suitable employee:            -  not afraid of 34          
- doesn’t need job security
Role culture
Characteristics of organization:   -  large,many 35          
- specialized departments
- rules and procedure, e.g. job
36           and rules for discipline
Advantages:                 -  economies of scale
- successful when 37           
ability is important
Disadvantages:               -  slow to see when 38           is
- slow to react
Suitable employee:           -  values security
- doesn’t want 39          
Task culture
Characteristics of organisation:  -  project orientated
- in competitive market or making product with short life
- a lot of delegation
Advantage:                  -  40          
Disadvantage:                -  no economies of scale or special                                   expertise
Suitable employee:             -  likes to work in groups

Text 2
Section 1
M: Good morning. Can I help you?
W: Yes. I've been accepted on a course at the university and I'd like to try and arrange accommodation in the hall of residence.
M: Yes, certainly. Please sit down. What I'll do is fill in a form with you to find out a little more about your preferences and so forth.
W: Thank you.
M: So first of all, can I take you name?
W: It's Anu Bhatt.
M: Could you spell your name please?
W: Yes. A-N-U... B-H-A double T.
M: Thanks, and could I ask your date of birth?
W: 31st March 1972.
M: Thank you. And where are you from?
W: India.
M: Oh right. And what will you be studying?
W: I'm doing a course in nursing.
M: Right, thank you. And how long would you want to stay in hall, do you think?
W: Well, it'll take three years but I'd only like to stay in hall for two. I'd like to think about living outside for the third year.
M: Fine. And what did you have in mind for catering? Do you want to cook for yourself or have all your meals provided, that's full board?
W: Is there something in between?
M: Yes. You can just have evening meal provided, which is half board.
W: That's what I prefer.
M: Yes, a lot of students opt for that. Now, with that in mind, do you have any special diet, anything we should know about?
W: Yes, I don't take red meat.
M: No red meat.
M: Now thinking about the room itself, we have a number of options. You can have a single study room or you can have a shared one. These are both what we call simple rooms. The other alternative is to opt for a single bedsit, which actually has more space and better facilities. There's about £20 a week difference between them.
W: Well, actually my grant is quite generous and I think the bedsit sound the best option.
M: Lovely. I'll put you down for that and we'll see what availability is like. Now can I ask some other personal details which we like to have on record?
W: yes, of course.
M: I wonder if you could let us know what your interests are. This might help us get a closer match for placing you in a particular hall.
W: Ummm. Well, I love the theatre.
M: Right.
W: And I enjoy sports, particularly badminton.
M: That's worth knowing. Now, what we finish with on the form is really a list from you of what you priorities are in choosing a hall and we'll do our best to take these into account.
W: Well, the first thing is I'd prefer a hall where there are other mature students, if possible.
M: Yes, we do have halls which tend to cater for slightly older students.
W: Ummm and I'd prefer to be out of twon.
M: That's actually very good for you because we tend have more vacancies in out-of-town halls.
W: Lucky!
M: Yes. Anything else?
W: Well, I would like somewhere with a shared area, a TV room for example, or something like that. It's a good way to socialise.
M: It certainly is.
W: That's it.
M: Now, we just need a contact telephone number for you.
W: Sure, I'll just find it. It's double 6-7549
W:当然,我会找到它。双6 - 7549
M: Great, so we'll be in contact with you as soon as possible...
Hello, I'd delighted to welcome you to our Wildlife Club, and very pleased that you're interested in the countryside and the plants and creatures of this area. I think you'll be surprised at the variety we have here, even though we're not far from London. I'll start by telling you about some of the parks and open spaces nearby.
One very pleasant place is Halland Common. This has been public land for hundreds of years, and what you'll find interesting is that the River Ouse, which flows into the sea eight kilometers away, had its source in the common. There;s an information board about the plants and animal you can see here, and by the way, the common is accessible 24 hours a day.
Then there's Holt Island, which is noted for its great range of trees. In the past willows were grown here commercially for basket-making, and this ancient craft recently been reintroduced. The island is only open to the public form Friday to Sunday, because it's quite small, and if there were people around every day, much of the wildlife would keep away.
From there it's just a short walk across the bridge to Longfield Country Park. Longfield has a modern replica of a farm over two thousand years ago. Children's activities are often arranged there, like bread-making and face-painting. The park is only open during daylight hours, so bear that in mind if you decide to go there.
Longfield has a programme of activities throughout the year, and to give you a sample, this is what's happening in the next few days. On Monday you can learn about herbs, and how they've been used over the centuries. You'll start with a tour of our herb graden, practise the techinique of using them as colour dyes for cloth, and listen to an illustrated talk about their use in cooking and medicine.
Then on Wednesday you can join local experts to discover the variety of insects and birds that appear in the evening. We keep to a small number of people in the group, so if you want to go you'll need to phone the park ranger a few days ahead. There's a small charge, which you should pay when you turn up.
I'm sure you're all keen to help with the practical task of looking after the park, so on Saturday you can join a working party. You'll have a chose of all sports of activities, from planting hedges to picking up litter, so you'll be able to change from one to another when you feel like it. The rangers will be hard at work all day, but do come and join in, even for just a short while. One thing, though, is to make sure you're wearing something that you don't mind getting dirty to torn.
And finally I'd like to tell you about our new wildlife area, Hinchingbrooke Park, which will be opened to the public next month. This slide doesn't really indicate how big it is, but anyway, you can see the two gates into the park, and the main paths. As you can see, there's a lake in the north west of the park, with a bird hide to the west of it, at the end of a path. So it'll be a nice quiet place for watching the bird on the lake.
Fairly close to where refreshments are available, there's a dog-walking area in the southern part of the park, leading off from the path. And if you just want to sit and relax, you can go to the flower garden; that's the circular area on the map surrounded by paths.
And finally, there's a wooded area in the western section of the park, between two paths. Okay, that's enough from me, so let's go on to...
Pam: Hi Jun. As you know, I've asked you here today to discuss the future of our Self-Access Centre. We have to decide what we want to do about this very important resource for our English language students. So, can you tell me what the students think about this?
Jun: Well, from the student's point of view, we would like to keep it. The majority of students say that they enjoy using it because it provides a variation on the classroom routine and they see it as a pretty major component of their course, but we would like to see some improvements to the equipment, particularly the computers; there aren't enough for one each at the moment and we always have to share.
P: Well yes, the teachers agree that it is a very valuable resource but one thing we have noticed is that a lot of the student using it, but we think the computers should used as a learning resource, nor for emails. Some of us also think that we could benefit a lot more by relocating the Self-Access Centre to the main University library building. How do you think the students would feel about that, Jun?
J: Well, the library is big enough to incorporate the Self-Access Centre, but it wouldn't be like a class activity anymore. Our main worry would be not being able to go to a teacher for advice. I'm sure there would be plenty of things to do but we really need teachers to help us choose the best activities.
P: Well, there would still be a teacher present and he or she would guide the activities of the students, we wouldn't just leave them to get on with it.
J: Yes, but I think the students would be much happier keeping the existing set-up; they really like going to the Self-Access Centre with their teacher and staying together as a group to do activities. If we could just improve the resources and facilities, I think it would be fine. Is the cost going to be a problem?
P: It's not so much the expense that I'm worried about, and we've certainly got roon to do it, but it's the problem of timetabling a teacher to be in there outside class hours. If we're going to spend a lot of money on equipment and resources, we really need to make sure that everything is looked after properly. Anyway, let's make some notes to see just what needs doing to improve the Centre.
Pam: Now, what about the computers? I think it might be a good idea to install some new models. They would take up a lot less room and so that would increase the work space for text books and so on.
Jun: That would be great. It is a bit cramped in there at times.
P: What about other resources? Do you have a list of things that the students would like to see improved?
J: Yes, one of the comments that students frequently make is that they find it difficult to find materials that are appropriate for their level, especially reading resources, so I think we need to label them more clearly.
P: Well that's easy enough, we can get that organised every quickly. In fact I think we should review all of the study resources as some of them are looking a bit out-of-date.
J: Definitely. The CD section especially needs to be more current. I think we should get some of the ones that go with our latest course books and also make multiple copies.
P: Good, now I was also thinking about some different materials that we haven't got in there at all. What do you think of the idea of introducing some workbooks? If we break them up into separate pages and laminate them, they'd be a great resource. The students could study the main course book in class and then do follow-up practice in the Self-Access Centre.
J: That sounds good.
P: Okay, now finally we need to think about how the room is used. I'll have to talk to the teachers and make sure we can all reach some agreement on a timetable to supervise the centre after class. But we also need to think about security, too. Especially if we're going to invest in some new equipment.
J: What about putting in an alarm?
P: Good idea. The other thing I'd like to do is talk to our technicians and see whether we could somehow limit the access to email. I really don't want to see that resource misused.
J: What about if we agree to only use it before and after class?
P: Yes, that would be fine. OK, anway... that's great for now. We'll dicuss it further when we've arranged to...
Good morning everyone. Now whether you're going to University to study business or some other subject, many of you will eventually end up working for a company of some kind.
Now, when you first start working somewhere you will realise that the organisation you've joined has certain characteristics. And we often refer to these social characteristics as the culture of the organisation- this includes its unwritten ideas, beliefs, values and things like that. One well known writer has classified company cultures by identifying four major types.
The first type is called the Power Culture, and it's usually found in small organisations.
It's the type of culture that needs a central source of power to be effective, and bucause control is in the hands of just one or two people there aren't many rules or procedures. Another characteristic is that communication usually takes the form of conversations rather than, say, formal meetings or written memos. Now one of the benefits of this culture is that the organisation has the ability to act quickly, so it responds well to threat, or danger on the one hand, and opportunity on the other.
But on the negative side, this type of organisation doesn't always act effectively, because it depends too much on one or two people at the top, and when these people make poor decisions there's no-one else who can influence them.
And the kind of person who does well in this type of business culture is one who is happy to take risks, and for whom job security is a low priority.
The next types if known as Role Culture—that's R-O-L-E, not R-O-double L, by the way, and this type is usually found in large companies, which have lots of different levels in them. These organisations usually have separate departments that specialise in things like finance, or sales, or maintenance, or whatever. Each one is co-ordinated at the top by a small group of senior managers and typically everyone's job is controlled by sets of rules and procedures- for example, there are specific job descriptions, rules for discipline, and so on.
下一个类型如果称为允诺R-O-L-E中扮演的角色,不是R-O-double L,顺便说一下,这种类型通常是发现在大公司,有很多不同的水平。这些组织通常有独立的部门,专门从事诸如金融、或销售,或维护,等等。每一个由一小群协同顶部高级经理,通常每个人的工作是由套规则和程序——例如,有具体的工作描述,规定纪律,等等。
What are the benefits of this kind of culture? Well firstly, because it's found in large organisations, its fixed costs, or overheads as they're known, are low in relation to it's output, or what it produces. In other words it can achieve economies of scale. And secondly, it is particularly successful in business markets where technical expertise is important. On the other hand, this culture is often very slow to recognise the need for change, and even slower to react. What kind of person does this type of culture suit? Well it suits employees who value security, and who don't particularly want to have responsibility.
Moving on now to Task Cultures-this type is found in organisations that are project-oriented. You usually find it where the market for the company's product is extremely competitive, or where the products themselves have a short life-span. Usually top management delegates the projects, the people and other resources. And once these have been allocated, little day-to-day control is exercised from the top, because this would seem like "breaking the rules"
Now one of the major benefits of this culture is that it's flexible. But it does have some major disadvantages too.
Reading Passage 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole. The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-19% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.
听力障碍或其他幼儿听觉功能赤字会对他们的发展产生重大影响的演讲和沟通能力,导致不利影响在学校的学习能力。这是可能有重大影响的个人和人口作为一个整体。新西兰卫生部已从研究发现超过二十年,6 - 19%的儿童在那个国家都受到听力损失的影响。
A preliminary study in New Zealand has shown that classroom noise presents a major concern for teachers and pupils. Modern teaching practices, the organization of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air-conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice. Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit. Noise in classrooms can only exacerbate their difficulty in comprehending and processing verbal communication with other children and instructions from the teacher.
Children with auditory function deficit are potentially failing to learn to their maximum potential because of noise levels generated in classrooms. The effects of noise on the ability of children to learn effectively in typical classroom environments are now the subject of increasing concern. The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (I-INCE), on the advice of the World Health Organization, has established an international working party, which includes New Zealand, to evaluate noise and reverberation control for school rooms.
While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit disorders (ADD/ADHD).
Autism is considered a neurological and genetic life-long disorder that causes discrepancies in the way information is processed. This disorder is characterized by interlinking problems with social imagination, social communication and social interaction. According to Janzen, this affects the ability to understand and relate in typical ways to people, understand events and objects in the environment, and understand or respond to sensory stimuli. Autism does not allow learning or thinking in the same ways as in children who are developing normally. Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated by machinery painful and distressing. This is difficult to scientifically quantify as such extra-sensory stimuli vary greatly from one autistic individual to another. But a child who finds any type of noise in their classroom or learning space intrusive is likely to be adversely affected in their ability to process information.
The attention deficit disorders are indicative of neurological and genetic disorders and are characterized by difficulties with sustaining attention, effort and persistence, organization skills and disinhibition. Children experiencing these disorders find it difficult to screen out unimportant information, and focus on everything in the environment rather than attending to a single activity. Background noise in the classroom becomes a major distraction, which can affect their ability to concentrate.
Children experiencing an auditory function deficit can often find speech and communication very difficult to isolate and process when set against high levels of background noise. These levels come from outside activities that penetrate the classroom structure, from teaching activities, and other noise generated inside, which can be exacerbated by room reverberation. Strategies are needed to obtain the optimum classroom construction and perhaps a change in classroom culture and methods of teaching. In particular, the effects of noisy classrooms and activities on those experiencing disabilities in the form of auditory function deficit need thorough investigation. It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education system with ‘invisible’ disabilities. Their needs are less likely to be met than those of children with known disabilities.
The New Zealand Government has developed a New Zealand Disability Strategy and has embarked on a wide-ranging consultation process. The strategy recognizes that people experiencing disability face significant barriers in achieving a full quality of life in areas such as attitude, education, employment and access to services. Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to ‘Provide the Best Education for Disabled People’ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing local school. For a successful education, the learning environment is vitally significant, so any effort to improve this is likely to be of great benefit to all children, but especially to those with auditory function disabilities.
A number of countries are already in the process of formulating their own standards for the control and reduction of classroom noise. New Zealand will probably follow their example. The literature to date on noise in school rooms appears to focus on the effects on schoolchildren in general, their teachers and the hearing impaired. Only limited attention appears to have been given to those students experiencing the other disabilities involving auditory function deficit. It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.

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